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CASE REPORT
Ahead of print publication  

Tract specific CNS involvement post COVID-19 vaccine: A case report


 Dr. D Y Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Center, Dr. D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission08-Apr-2022
Date of Decision26-Apr-2022
Date of Acceptance27-Apr-2022
Date of Web Publication02-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
Shalesh Rohatgi,
Dr. D Y Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Center, Dr. D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune - 411 018, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmms.jmms_56_22

  Abstract 

We hereby report an interesting case of tractopathy following COVID-19 vaccine. Acute transverse myelitis following COVID-19 infection or vaccination is well documented. However, to the best of our knowledge, no case of selective tract involvement following COVID-19 vaccine has been reported so far. One case of tract-specific central nervous system involvement following COVID-19 infection has been reported from India. We report the case of a 46-year-old male who developed clinical and radiological evidence of tractopathy involving the corticospinal tracts and posterior columns following the first dose of the Covishield vaccine.

Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine, myelitis, tractopathy



How to cite this URL:
Dubey P, Rohatgi S, Rao P, Nirhale S, Naphade P, Gitay A. Tract specific CNS involvement post COVID-19 vaccine: A case report. J Mar Med Soc [Epub ahead of print] [cited 2023 Feb 6]. Available from: https://www.marinemedicalsociety.in/preprintarticle.asp?id=362588




  Introduction Top


SARS-CoV-2 is a neurotropic virus.[1] Neurological manifestations following the infection are well documented. Postvaccination Guillain‒Barre syndrome, possibly as a result of immune-mediated attack on myelin, is also well documented. However, selective involvement of tracts in the nervous system following COVID-19 vaccine has not been reported so far.


  Case Report Top


A 46-year-old male presented with acute-onset weakness, tingling, and numbness in both lower limbs, along with and retention of urine for 7 days. The patient had taken the first dose of Covishield vaccine 6 days before the onset of symptoms. There was no history of fever or cough preceding the illness. The general examination was unremarkable. The patient had normal higher mental functions. The cranial nerves and speech were normal. Both upper limbs were normal on examination. Power was grade 0/5 in both lower limbs. Deep-tendon jerks were brisk in both lower limbs and both planter reflexes showed extensor response. Pain and temperature sensations were normal. Joint position and vibration were impaired to the anterior superior iliac spine. The patient had a Foley's catheter in situ. Routine hematological parameters, serum Vitamin B12, renal function tests, liver function tests, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for COVID-19, serum myelin-associated glycoprotein antibodies, aquaporin-4 antibodies, HIV, HbsAg, anti-hepatitis c virus (HCV) antibodies, and antinuclear antibodies were negative. Cerebrospinal fluid examination (CSF) showed two cells, 33 mg% proteins, and sugar of 60 mg%. Serum COVID-19 antibody titer by chemiluminescent microparticle immuno assay (CMIA) was 5.7 (positive). CSF RT-PCR for COVID-19, COVID antibodies, and oligoclonal bands was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed nonenhancing T2 and flair hyperintensities selectively involving only posterior column and lateral corticospinal tracts and sparing other tracts extending throughout the entire length of the spinal cord [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. MRI brain revealed bilateral symmetrical nonenhancing T2 and flair hyperintensities involving the posterior part of the posterior limb of the internal capsule which could be traced to the anterior part of the tegmentum of the midbrain [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6] which is the location of corticospinal tracts. The patient was started on injection methylprednisolone pulse therapy, followed by seven cycles of plasmapheresis; however, there was no improvement in his neurological status.
Figure 1: Sagittal T2-weighted dorsal spinal cord

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Figure 2: Axial T2-weighted cervical spinal cord

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Figure 3: Diffusion-weighted imaging axial brain

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Figure 4: Diffusion-weighted imaging axial brain

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Figure 5: T2-weighted axial brain

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Figure 6: FLAIR axial brain

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  Discussion Top


GuillainBarre syndrome following any vaccination is believed to be immune mediated. Similar mechanism of molecular mimicry and COVID antibodies attacking myelinated tracts in the central nervous system (CNS) is postulated. Post-COVID-19 vaccine transverse myelitis has been reported.[2],[3] One case report of post-COVID tract-specific CNS involvement has been described from India, where the patient had only involvement of the corticospinal tracts and posterior columns like in our present case.[4] There is no plausible explanation as to why only these two tracts are selectively involved (both COVID-associated and post-COVID vaccine) apart from the fact that both of these tracts are heavily myelinated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case reported after COVID-19 vaccine.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Conde Cardona G, Quintana Pajaro LD, Quintero Marzola ID, Ramos Villegas Y, Moscote Salazar LR. Neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2: Mechanism and manifestations. J Neurol Sci 2020;412:116824.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Hsiao YT, Tsai MJ, Chen YH, Hsu CF. Acute transverse myelitis after COVID-19 vaccination. Medicina (Kaunas) 2021;57:1010.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Goss AL, Samudralwar RD, Das RR, Nath A. ANA investigates: neurological complications of COVID-19 vaccines. Ann Neurol 2021;89:856-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Jose J, Shiva Kumar HR. A case of tract specific inolvement following SARS-Cov-2 Infection. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. doi: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_1137_20.  Back to cited text no. 4
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]



 

 
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